Scams can take may forms. Those which are commonly encountered include:

Falsely informing someone that they have won a prize in a lottery or draw, with an instruction to pay an advance fee in order to receive the prize.

Advertising goods and services which can be bought through advance payment, and which do not arrive or are of poor quality. This can include rogue traders and door-to-door salespeople.

Offering investment opportunities (such as investments in a business, product, savings account or pension account). Victims do not receive the promised financial benefits after handing over their assets to the investment scheme.

Pension scams involving offers to convert pension benefits into cash payments, resulting in victims paying high costs and being taxed.

Posing as a bank and building society and asking people for personal information such as PIN numbers, account numbers or card details. People may also pose as a commercial company or government department (such as HMRC) to trick people into handing over personal information.

Posing as an organisation that someone makes bank payments to, tricking them into paying the money into the fraudulent account instead.

Use of online dating sites and chat rooms to build a romantic relationship with the victim, grooming them into sending the perpetrator money.

Promising contact with relatives or friends who have passed away, or promising to predict the future, in return for payment.